Measuring mindfulness and well-being in Adults: The role of age and meditation experience

Volume 3 - Issue 1
Juhani E. Lehto Lotta Uusitalo-Malmivaara Saara Repo
Pages: 30-40 Download Count : 4842 View Count: 3824 Facebook Share on Google+ Save to Zotero Save to Mendeley


Two Finnish versions of mindfulness measures were developed. Their validity, as well as relation to age and well-being were investigated. An online study of both the short version Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI) and the Mindfulness Process Questionnaire (MPQ) was carried out. An unselected sample of 749 adults aged 18–68 years participated. Of these, 416 reported that they had never meditated (Nonmeditators), whereas 333 had meditation experience (Meditators). The FMI-13 and MPQ-6 showed good internal consistency, and were highly inter-correlated, rs = .75–.76, suggesting that despite their different origins, they tap the same underlying structure. The previously reported two-factor structure (Acceptance and Presence) of the FMI-13 was replicated. The FMI-13 and MPQ-6 showed expected and nearly identical correlational patterns with the validation criteria: self-esteem, depression symptoms, and subjective happiness. Compared to Nonmeditators, the Meditators scored higher on wellbeing and measures of mindfulness, with the exception of Presence. The results also tentatively suggest that mindfulness and well-being increase with age.


  • Mindfulness
  • FMI
  • MPQ
  • nonmeditator
  • meditator
  • age
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