Volume 3 - Issue 2

July 2015

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Lay beliefs and projections of trait happiness

Nicholas A. Coles Valerie K. Sims Matthew G. Chin
Pages: 116-125

To achieve high levels of Subjective Well Being, it is argued that one must experience frequent positive affect, low levels of negative affect, and high satisfaction with life. However, researchers have not investigated whether the lay theories of happiness also include these dimensions. Using a 2 (negative, positive affectivity) x 2 (low, high life satisfaction) factorial design, this experiment explored whether 256 university students believed that positive affect and high satisfaction with life were necessary precursors for happiness. Additionally, the study explored whether participant’s own trait affectivity, life satisfaction, and happiness projected onto their social judgments of a hypothetical other’s happiness. Overall, participants believed that both positive affect and life satisfaction are necessary for high levels of happiness, and that these two factors provided an additive effect in their social judgments. Correlational analyses demonstrated that, contrary to past findings, there were no significant associations between one’s judgments of another’s happiness, and their own affectivity, life satisfaction, or happiness. Altogether, our study suggests that when given sufficient information, participants are capable of formulating multidimensional judgments of happiness that are not influenced by their own trait happiness.

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Social involvement and social well-being in attainment of millennial flourishing

Steven A. Taylor Hulda Black Leigh A. N. Donovan Kimberly Judson
Pages: 126-141

There have been recent calls for positioning human flourishing and well-being as foundations for business school curriculum. Despite these calls, specifically how to evolve educational practices toward a greater focus on flourishing and well-being as opposed to a focus on job training and other marketization emphases remains a conundrum for business educators. The current research empirically relates academic achievement, social involvement, and subjective well-being to the flourishing of a millennial cohort of university business students. Our results demonstrate that self-perceived flourishing goal achievement appears to fully mediate the direct effect from social involvement to social well-being. This implies that simply involving students in a greater number of social activities alone will likely not contribute to their well-being. Rather, our results show it is the congruence of social activities and behaviors with their flourishing-related goals as the most efficacious path to increasing student well-being in higher education. We are able to show that an emphasis on flourishing in higher education instead of the current and traditional method of focusing on value delivery and sales (i.e., marketization) appear reasonably achievable with the Millennial cohort. Results indicate that self-perceived flourishing goal achievement appears to fully mediate the direct relationship from social involvement to social well-being.

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Genetic distance and differences in happiness across nations: Some preliminary evidence

Martijn Burger Ruut Veenhoven Laila Kakar Harry Commandeur
Pages: 142-158

Survey studies worldwide have revealed large differences in happiness, both within and across nations. Many of the within-nation differences have a genetic basis, as twin studies have shown. Is there also a genetic component in the large differences across nations? In this paper, we report an initial exploration of this question in 104 nations. We estimate the relative importance of the genetic component in a bilateral analysis, calculating the correlation between the distance in genetic profile and average happiness, measured as satisfaction with life-as-a-whole. In this analysis, genetic distance explains 8.4% of the variance in cross-national differences in happiness. However, after controlling for cultural, institutional, economic, and geographical differences between countries, the explained variance is significantly reduced. We conclude that the direct effect of genetic distance is probably small.

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The relationship between teachers’ psychological well-being and their quality of school work life

Abdurrahman Ilgan Öykü Özü-Cengiz Atakan Ata Muhammad Akram
Pages: 159-181

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between quality of school work life (QSWL) and psychological well-being (PWB) of public school teachers. Cluster random sampling technique was used to collect data from 784 teachers in 120 schools across six providences in Turkey. Data were primarily collected with two validated scales: Psychological Well-being, and the Quality of School Work Life. The study revealed that teachers rated their level of Quality of School Work Life moderately, and rated their level of Psychological Well-being relatively higher. The findings of the study indicate that there were some differences in QSWL levels of teachers in connection with some demographic variables. Further, stepwise linear regression revealed that their Quality of School Work Life rating described teachers’ Psychological Well-being. The findings are compared with previous research, and finally, the limitations of the study are discussed with recommendations for future research.

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Pozitif psikoterapi: Gelişimi, temel ilke ve yöntemleri ve Türk kültürüne uygulanabilirliği

Tuğba Sarı
Pages: 182-203

Bu çalışmada, kültürel faktörlere duyarlı ve pozitif yönelimli çağdaş yaklaşımlardan biri olan Pozitif Psikoterapi, Türk yazın alanına tanıtılmış ve Pozitif Psikoterapinin Türk kültürüne uygulanabilirliği tartışılmıştır. Çalışmada sırasıyla Pozitif Psikoterapinin gelişimine; Pozitif Psikoterapinin genel özelliklerine ve prensiplerine; Türk kültürünün genel özelliklerine ve Pozitif Psikoterapinin Türk kültürüne uygulanabilirliği konularına değinilmiştir. Pozitif Psikoterapi içinde diğer terapi kuramlarını barındırmakla birlikte kendine özgü prensip ve müdahale yöntemleri olan kaynak-yönelimli, çatışma-çözüm temelli ve kültüre duyarlı bir terapi yaklaşımıdır. Pozitif Psikoterapide kullanılan “pozitif” sözcüğünün özel bir anlamı vardır. Özgün kullanımında (positum) olduğu gibi, bu kullanımda da gerçek ve var olanı ifade eder. Bunun yanında, Pozitif Psikoterapinin özü beş adımlı bir süreçtir: 1. Gözlem/uzaklaşma evresi, 2. Envanter evresi, 3. Durumsal cesaretlendirme evresi, 4. Sözelleştirme evresi, 5. Hedefleri genişletme evresi. Beş aşamalı model terapiyi şekillendirme için yardımcı olan bir rehberdir. Aynı zamanda bu beş basamağın kendi kendine yardım amacıyla terapi sonlandırılmadan danışan tarafından da öğrenilmesi hedeflenmektedir. Türkiye, farklı bölgelerinde farklı yaşam tarzına ve kültürel yapılara sahip olan genel olarak da toplulukçu bir kültür olarak bilinmektedir. Pozitif Psikoterapi, özellikle bütünleyici bir yaklaşım olması özelliğiyle birlikte kültürlerarası ve kültüre duyarlı terapi vurgusu ile Türk kültürüne uygun olabilir. Ancak uygulanabilirliği ile dikkat edilmesi gereken noktalar bulunmaktadır. Çalışma öneriler ile bitirilmiştir.

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Examining adolescent wellness, success skills and academic performance: A classroom intervention approach

Jacqueline Wirth Elizabeth Villares
Pages: 204-217

This article presents the results of an experimental study designed to impact early adolescent wellness, success skills and academic performance. Middle school physical education (PE) teachers delivered the Student Success Skills classroom program, an evidence-based school-counseling curriculum. All middle school students in the state where the study occurred are required to complete one credit of PE in middle school. Students in the participating study were randomly assigned, at the school level, to a complete the required PE class in the fall or spring semester of their seventh grade year. The students in the treatment group (n=66) participated in five, 45- minute SSS lessons, spaced one week apart while students in the control group (n=69) receive their standard physical education curriculum. The volunteer seventh grade students’ (N=135) pre- and post-test total scores on the Five Factor Wellness Inventory Form-T, Student Engagement in School Success Skills survey, and nine-week grades were used to determine if a statistical difference existed between groups post intervention. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the pre- and post-test student wellness scores on the Five Factor Wellness Inventory Form- T resulted in statistically significant differences for students who participated in the SSS intervention [F (1,133) = 4.701, p = .032, d=+0.37] and their peers who did not. No statistically significant differences were found between groups on their engagement in school success skills or nine-week grades reported in core academic subject areas (Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies). Recommendations for future studies are discussed.

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The Journal of Happiness & Well-Being (JHW) welcomes you,

We are pleased to announce 7th issue of The Journal of Happiness and Well-Being in January 2016.

I would like to thank to editorial board, reviewers and the researchers for their valuable contributions to the journal and this 7th issue.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Tayfun Dogan

Editor-in-Chief