Volume 4 - Issue 1

January 2016

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The relationship between compassion, interpersonal communication apprehension, narcissism and verbal aggressiveness

Leslie Ramos Salazar
Pages: 1-14

This investigation explores the relationship between compassion, interpersonal communication apprehension, narcissism, and verbal aggressiveness in friendship relationships. First, it discusses the novel construct of compassion for others and its inverse relationship to constructs such as interpersonal communication apprehension, narcissism, and verbal aggressiveness in friendship communication. Second, it examines whether there are gender differences in compassion, interpersonal communication apprehension (CA), narcissism, and verbal aggressiveness. Participants were 613 undergraduate students who completed the Compassion Scale, PRCA-24, Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale, and the Verbal Aggressiveness Scale. Data were analyzed using Pearson Product-moment correlations to examine the associations among the variables of interest and Independent-sample t-tests to investigate sex differences. The results of this study revealed that compassion was inversely correlated with interpersonal CA, narcissism, and verbal aggressiveness. Sex differences were also found in compassion, interpersonal CA, and verbal aggressiveness.

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Difficulties generating self-compassion: An interpretative phenomenological analysis

Aydan Bayır
Pages: 15-33

The aim of the present study was to make an idiographic investigation about the difficulties that are encountered by people who self-identify as having difficulties with self-compassion. Although a growing number of studies have been carried out concerning the concept of self-compassion, most research designs were quantitative. Based on this gap, the current study expanded the scope to include a qualitative dimension of the recent literature on self-compassion and Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was adopted as methodological preference, which particularly monitors the lived experience of participants. In consequence of four in-depth semi-structured interviews, four super-ordinate themes emerged; the double-edged-sword: perfectionism, the flaws of compassion, the effects of a third person, and the advantages of self-criticism. In line with pre-existing research, these findings explored the reasons behind self-undermining behaviours and misconstructions about self-compassion, which are a barrier to gentle self-talk. Furthermore, unfavourable effects of the social environment prime participants to maladaptive perfectionism and excessive self-criticism, which are considered a success formula by the participants. This study's purpose is to present a detailed roadmap about the self-destructive journey of the people with low self-compassion. It will help researchers and clinicians to develop future interventions in order to cultivate kind and encouraging attitudes in self-critical people.

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Adleryan kuramın pozitif psikoloji bağlamında değerlendirilmesi

Bengü Ergüner Tekinalp
Pages: 34-49

Adleryan kuram insancıl, varoluşçu, kısa süreli, çözüm odaklı, feminist ve çok kültürlü yaklaşımlara öncülük etmiş bir kuramdır. Kuramın gerek psikolojik danışma, gerekse çocuk ve ebeveyn eğitimi ve rehberliği, eğitim psikolojisi, evlilik ve aile terapisi ve örgütsel psikoloji alanında uygulamaları mevcuttur. Adleryan kuram pek çok kurama öncülük etmiş olmasına rağmen, çoğunlukla etkileri alanyazında göz ardı edilmiştir. Bütüncül, güçlü yanlara odaklı, insancıl, danışanları sorunlarının üstesinden gelme kapasitesine sahip bireyler olarak gören bir kuram olarak kuramın pozitif psikoloji akımı ile pek çok benzer yanı bulunmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın amacı Adleryan kuram ile pozitif psikolojinin benzerliklerini açıklamak, Adleryan kuramı pozitif psikoloji bağlamında değerlendirmek, ve kuramın pozitif psikoloji ile ilişkili kavramlarını pozitif psikoloji ışığında ele alarak araştırmacı ve ruh sağlığı uzmanlarına kaynak olmaktır.

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Merhamet Ölçeği’nin Türkçeye uyarlanması: Geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması

Seher Akdeniz Mehmet Engin Deniz
Pages: 50-61

Bu çalışmanın amacı, Pommier (2011) tarafından geliştirilen Merhamet Ölçeği’ni (MÖ) Türkçeye uyarlayarak geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışmalarını gerçekleştirmektir. Araştırmaya dört çalışma grubundan oluşan toplam 854 üniversite öğrencisi katılmıştır (490 kız / 364 erkek). Ölçeğin psikometrik özellikleri; doğrulayıcı faktör analizi, ölçüt bağıntılı geçerlik, iç tutarlık ve test-tekrar test yöntemleri ile incelenmiştir. Ölçeğin yapı geçerliği için doğrulayıcı faktör analizi yapılmış ve merhamet yapısını oluşturan altı boyutun varlığı doğrulanmıştır. Ölçüt bağıntılı geçerlik çalışması sonucunda Duyarlı Sevgi Ölçeği, Öz Anlayış Ölçeği ve Bilinçli Farkındalık Ölçeği ile pozitif yönde anlamlı ilişkiler bulunmuştur. İç tutarlık güvenirlik katsayısının ölçeğin tümü için .85 olduğu görülmüştür. Ayrıca test – tekrar test yöntemi ile yapılan uygulamalar arasındaki korelasyon katsayısının da yeterli olduğu sonucuna varılmıştır. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre Türkçeye uyarlanan ölçeğin, bireylerin merhamet düzeylerini belirlemede geçerli ve güvenilir bir araç olduğu söylenebilir.

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Defense style predicts subjective well-being in a non-clinical sample

Jennifer Lyke
Pages: 62-71

A wealth of literature has established that psychotherapeutic and psychiatric treatment corresponds to increased use of mature defense mechanisms and decreased use of immature defense mechanisms in clinical samples, but little research has investigated correlates of defense style in untreated populations. In addition, almost no literature has established the link between use of more mature defense mechanisms and positive aspects of life experience in non-clinical populations. This investigation tested the hypotheses that 1) defense style (mature, neurotic, immature) would significantly predict happiness and satisfaction with life in a non-clinical sample, and 2) an interaction between mature and immature defense styles would affect both happiness and life satisfaction. Participants (N = 173) were community members who completed three self-report instruments. Two hierarchical multiple regressions were performed to investigate whether life satisfaction or happiness could be significantly predicted by any of the defense styles, or interactions between any two of the defense styles after controlling for age and gender. Results indicated that mature, neurotic, and immature defense styles and gender were each significantly associated with happiness. However, only mature and immature defense styles were predictive of life satisfaction. No interactions were significant. Implications for future research are discussed.

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Do life goals mediate the link between personality traits and mental well-being?

Merja Hietalahti Johanna Rantanen Katja Kokko
Pages: 72-89

The present study examined, first, the connections between life goals and different dimensions of mental well-being, and, second, life goals as mediators in the previously established relation between personality traits and mental well-being. The data were drawn from 42- and 50-year-old participants (n = 242) in the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Personality and Social Development. Regression analysis revealed that, in women, leisure-related goals (including items on hobbies, relationships and sexuality) were positively linked to emotional, psychological, and social well-being. In men, performance-related goals (mental performance, family’s welfare, work and economic welfare) positively predicted psychological and social well-being, and leisure-related goals social well-being. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that, in women, leisure-related goals were a partial mediator in the links from neuroticism and extraversion to emotional well-being: low neuroticism and high extraversion were positively associated with leisure-related goals, which in turn were positively related to emotional well-being. In men, performance-related goals were a partial mediator between extraversion and psychological well-being: extraversion was positively linked to performance-related goals, which was further positively related to psychological well-being. In conclusion, the present results indicate, first, that life goals are linked to different dimensions of mental well-being; second, that life goals partially mediate the associations between personality traits and mental well-being; and, third, that some gender differences exist in the relations between personality traits, life goals, and mental well-being.

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A validity and reliability study of the Subjective Happiness Scale in Mexico

Lucía Quezada René Landero Mónica T. González
Pages: 90-100

Since its creation, the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) has been the most frequently used instrument to evaluate subjective happiness. Although the original version has been translated and validated into several languages around the world, including Spanish, there are not enough studies in Latin American countries that evaluate its psychometric properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Mexican version of the SHS. The SHS was administered along with the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) to the general population. A large sample of 849 participants was used for this study. For statistical analysis, the sample was divided into four groups according to age (range 16 to 64 years old). The reliability and unidimensional structure of the SHS were tested and also a multigroup confirmatory factor analysis was conducted. Results indicate an adequate reliability for the scale (α = .77), supporting its unidimensional structure regardless of sex and age ranges. Also, the SHS was negatively correlated with the PSS, showing its discriminant validity. We can conclude that the Mexican version of the SHS is an adequate instrument to use in the Mexican population, both in young people and in adults. It would be advisable to confirm these results in other larger samples; however, in the absence of other studies in the country, this data can be taken, provisionally, as normative data.

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Affective states and the notion of happiness

Heinz Welsch Jan Kühling
Pages: 101-114

Social surveys have increasingly elicited citizen’s happiness and life satisfaction, but the content of these notions is vague. This paper uses correlation and regression analysis of survey data from a student sample (N = 144) to explore how reports of happiness and life satisfaction are related to measures of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA). Major findings are the following: (1) PA and NA levels jointly predict happiness better than they predict life satisfaction. (2) PA levels predict happiness better than do NA levels. (3) NA levels predict life satisfaction better than do PA levels. (4) The PA items that predict happiness include those that predict life satisfaction (but not vice versa). (5) The NA items that predict happiness are distinct from those that predict life satisfaction. The study contributes to the literature by characterizing reported happiness and life satisfaction in terms of the specific positive and negative affects involved, thus clarifying their respective affective state content. Finding (4) is consistent with the mediator model of affective and cognitive well-being, according to which people in part directly rely on the affective component to judge life satisfaction. Given the nature and size of our sample, the results are indicative, and the study should inspire future research that strives to validate our findings in different contexts.

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Religiosity and happiness: A comparison of the happiness levels between the religious and the nonreligious

Warren J. Sillick Bruce A. Stevens Stuart Cathcart
Pages: 115-127

Previous studies have identified a positive link between religiosity and happiness. However, this link is contentious as some studies have found no association. The present study compared the happiness levels of the religious and the nonreligious using two separate measures of happiness, the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. One hundred and twenty four people (men = 43, women = 81), aged between 18 and 73 years (M = 42.28, SD = 12.18), participated in the study by completing an online survey. There were 13 participants in the „believe in God‟ group, 53 participants in the „believe in God and participate in religion group, 17 participants in the „agnostic‟ group, and 41 participants in the „atheist‟ group. The results found there was no difference in happiness levels between any of the groups for both measures of happiness. These findings suggest the religious are not happier than the nonreligious. Further studies are needed to compare the happiness levels of the religious and nonreligious with a variety of samples.

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Üniversite öğrencilerinin travmatik yaşantı, psikolojik doğum sıraları ve sosyal ilgilerinin psikolojik dayanıklılıklarını yordaması

Ümre Kayacı Yaşar Özbay
Pages: 128-142

Bu çalışma, üniversite öğrencilerinin travmatik yaşantıya sahip olma, psikolojik doğum sırası ve sosyal ilgi düzeylerinin, psikolojik dayanıklılık düzeylerini yordamadaki rolünü incelemek amacıyla yapılmıştır. Araştırma grubu Gazi Üniversitesi Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi’nde on iki farklı bölümde öğrenim gören toplam 438 öğrenciden oluşmaktadır. Araştırma grubunda 328 kız öğrenci (%74.9) ve 110 erkek öğrenci (%25.1) bulunmaktadır. Araştırmada; “Toplumsal İlgi Ölçeği”, “Psikolojik Dayanıklılık Ölçeği”, “White-Campbell Psikolojik Doğum Sırası Envanteri” ve Kişisel Bilgi Formu kullanılmıştır. Verilerin analizinde Pearson Momentler Çarpımı Korelasyonu, Hiyerarşik Regresyon Analizi, t-testi kullanılmıştır. Araştırmada; psikolojik dayanıklılık ve psikolojik dayanıklılığın alt boyutları olan kendini adama, kontrol, meydan okuma; sosyal ilgi ile pozitif yönde ilişkili bulunmuştur. Sosyal ilgi ile en fazla psikolojik dayanıklılığın kendini adama boyutu pozitif yönde ilişkili bulunmuştur. Büyük çocuk ve küçük çocuk psikolojik doğum sırası, sosyal ilgi ve psikolojik dayanıklılık ile pozitif yönde ilişkili olduğu görülmüştür. Bu araştırma kapsamında; ortanca çocuk psikolojik doğum sırası sosyal ilgi ile negatif yönde ilişkili olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Sosyal ilginin ve tek çocuk psikolojik doğum sırasının meydan okuma için anlamlı bir yordayıcı olduğu görülmüştür. Ayrıca, büyük çocuk, tek çocuk psikolojik doğum sıraları ve sosyal ilginin, kontrol için anlamlı bir yordayıcı olduğu bulunmuştur. Son olarak; büyük çocuk psikolojik doğum sırası, travmatik yaşam olayı ile sosyal ilginin, kendini adama için anlamlı bir yordayıcı olduğu sonucu elde edilmiştir. Elde edilen bulgular, yapılan araştırmalarla birlikte tartışılmış ve önerilerde bulunulmuştur.

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The Journal of Happiness & Well-Being (JHW) welcomes you,

We are pleased to announce 7th issue of The Journal of Happiness and Well-Being in January 2016.

I would like to thank to editorial board, reviewers and the researchers for their valuable contributions to the journal and this 7th issue.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Tayfun Dogan

Editor-in-Chief