Volume 5 - Issue 2

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Meaning making in rural Appalachia: Age and gender patterns in seven measures of meaning

Sherry Hamby Anna Segura Elizabeth Taylor John Grych Victoria Banyard
Pages: 168-186

People derive meaning in life from a wide variety of sources, but little is known about how patterns of meaning making vary across individuals. The current study examined age and gender patterns in seven measures of meaning: sense of purpose, optimism, religious or spiritual involvement, family care, morals and ethical standards, self-oriented, and relationship-oriented meaning making. As far as we are aware, this study is one of the largest studies ever conducted on this topic, allowing us to explore curvilinear age patterns and interactions between age and gender. The sample comprised 2565 participants (63.9% females), including adolescents and adults, who were recruited from rural communities of 3 Southern U.S. states. Participants completed self-report measures assessing meaning-making strengths. Overall, analyses indicated that most meaning-making strengths increase across the lifespan, from adolescence to middle adulthood, except for self-oriented activities, which were highest during adolescence and then declined. Females reported higher scores in several types of meaning-making strengths than males, but males reported more optimism. Some curvilinear patterns in age were noted, suggesting turning points or plateaus in meaning making, which have not been previously identified. Prevention and intervention programs may benefit from consideration of turning points and other age and gender patterns in meaning making. For example, recognizing whether a population is likely to be more involved in identity development or family roles could help guide programming. Future research could continue to expand the types of meaning studied.

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Psychometric properties of Turkish form of the Fear of Happiness Scale

Murat Yildirim Izaddin A. Aziz
Pages: 187-195

The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of Turkish form of the Fear of Happiness Scale (FHS). After the linguistic equivalence of the scale was assured, reliability and validity analyses were performed. The factor structure of the scale was examined through exploratory factor analysis (N = 171) and confirmatory factor analysis (N = 171). The results indicated that FHS is unidimensional. The results also showed that the Turkish version of the FHS had Cronbach’s alpha value of 0.86. In addition to this, Pearson product-moment correlation analysis revealed that the scale had acceptable evidence of criterion-related validity by negatively correlating with measures of Positive Affect, Life Satisfaction and Subjective Happiness and positively correlating with measure of Negative Affect. These findings indicated that Turkish version of the FHS can be used as a reliable and valid measure in Turkish culture. The findings also facilitate the improvement of the theoretical and empirical research on happiness and well-being.

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Subjective well-being in competitive psychomotor games: A qualitative approach

Jorge Serna Bardavío Unai Sáez de Ocáriz Pere Lavega Francisco Lagardera Jaume March
Pages: 196-211

Fostering subjective well-being (SWB) in participants in games is an interesting resource for physical education teachers. This study examines the structural traits (internal logic) of games and the subjective traits (external logic, individual and group) of players, oriented towards the task or the ego, that provoke states of SWB (related to affiliation, autonomy, mastery and meaning) in participants in individual competitive psychomotor games. Two hundred and eighteen first-year undergraduates pursuing a physical education and sports science degree took part in the study. The students received two sessions consisting of five individual games each per session. The participants completed questionnaires after each game, giving accounts of their emotional experiences. The content analysis performed by six experts related SWB to the structural aspects of each game: a fun game, a pleasant or unpleasant competition, and the way victory was achieved (score - close/crushing; frequency - first time/repeated; unexpected; making a comeback). SWB also referred to three subjective aspects related to oneself (strategy and effort), to the rival (skills and characteristics) and to the group (climate).

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